Recent Changes

Thursday, December 15

  1. page How to write a History Essay edited ... 7, You have to show that other sides of the story. You have to recognize other school of thoug…
    ...
    7, You have to show that other sides of the story. You have to recognize other school of thoughts. Best argument is when you can count on anybody else.
    Cont
    LIST OF THINGS DOS AND
    Common mistakes
    - Don’t use pronouns
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    11:56 am

Tuesday, December 6

  1. page Tsar Nicholas II 1906 - 1914 edited Political Change The Tsar did set up the Duma (parliament) as he had promised in the manifesto,…

    Political Change
    The Tsar did set up the Duma (parliament) as he had promised in the manifesto, but he curtailed its power drastically. It could not pass laws or control finance, and ministers were still responsible to the Tsar and not to the Duma.
    The electoral system was weighted in favor of the well-off and against the working classes and peasants. The revolutionary parties decided to boycott the Duma when they couldn’t get any changes made.
    After a rocky beginning the Duma did do some useful work but it was clear that the Tsar wasn’t prepared to make the jump to constitutional government.
    Economic and Social change
    The Peasants
    In the countryside, Stolypin, the chief minister, brought in land reforms to encourage higher production. He aimed to encourage the KULAKS to become efficient producers for the market. He allowed them to consolidate their land into one holding (previously the old strip system had been used) and to buy up the land of poorer, less efficient peasants.
    To some extent this worked and production did increase, leading to record harvests by 1913, although some historians maintain this was more t odo with favorable weather conditions.
    But the reforms hadn’t gone far enough by 1914 to judge whether they were a permanent solution to Russia’s agricultural problems, which were very complex. The reforms certainly had a serious downside: they produced a growing class of alienated poor peasants. Many drifted into the cities to work in the factories while others became disgruntled farm laborers.
    The workers
    Between 1906 and 1914 there was an industrial boom, with tremendous rates of growth in industries like coal, iron and oil. Huge modern factories grew up in the cities, employing large numbers of workers.
    Entrepreneurs and business people were very prosperous. However workers didn’t, on the whole, benefit from the increasing prosperity (although in some areas they did quite well). Average wages didn’t raise much above their pitiful 1903 levels. Conditions at home and in the workplace were just as dreadful as they had always been. As a result, there were a growing number of strikes before the First World War. Workers remained disillusioned with their economic and political progress
    The downfall of the Tsar
    We can identify two broad lines of thought amongst historians. The first suggests that Russia was beginning to make the changes required, that agricultural and industry were making real progress, and that there was some political progress which suggested the Tsar would make some concessions to parliamentary government in the not-so-distant future.
    It can also be suggested that progress had been made on the industrial front, but stress that the benefits hadn’t filtered down to the working class who remained discontented and strike-prone in 1914. They maintain that the case for the success of the agricultural reforms hasn’t been proven and point to the continued alienation and antagonism of the peasantry, who wanted more land.
    They claim that little real progress had been made in political sphere and that the Tsar remained an entrenched autocrat, reluctant to give up any of his powers. Those who agree with this believe that the regime was unable to adapt to changing conditions and would have fallen even without the impact of the First World War. However, they agree that the war acted as a catalyst for the revolution and accelerated events.
    Notes by Jorden Olton

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    2:03 am
  2. page The 1905 Revolution edited Rebels lack direction – The uprising was spontaneous and therefore lacked: Unity: The peasants,…

    Rebels lack direction – The uprising was spontaneous and therefore lacked:
    Unity: The peasants, workers and the liberal politicians all wanted very different – and in some ways contradictory – things. The Liberals in particular were shook to the core by the forces they had helped to unleash (“Thank God for the Tsar, who has saved us from the people” said Struve!). In fact, very few people wanted a real revolution, merely concessions from the Tsar.
    Leadership: Lenin was in London and Stalin in Siberia, whilst Trotsky alienated many of the rebels with his desire to overthrow not just the Tsar but the entire political infrastructure. The workers hadn’t so much rejected them as outpaced them – “The Great Dress Rehearsal” was never Lenin’s show.
    Tsar makes concessions to Liberals and the Peasantry – The lack of unity amonf his opponents made it easy for the Tsar to divide them. The October Manifesto served to split the moderates from the revolutionaries.
    The Peasant were satisfied with the Tsar’s promise of land reform and agricultural disturbances fell off dramatically
    The Liberals, who “feared anarchy more than monarchy” (McAuley) were satisfied with the Tsar’s promise of a legislative Duma and a relaxtion of censorship laws.
    Tsar uses Army and Black Hundred to crush the Proletariat – Crucially for the survival of the regime, the autocracy never lost control of the instruments of oppression
    The police arrested the leaders of the St. Petersburg, Soviet, including Trotsky
    The army brutally crushed a strike in Moscow with 1000 deaths – Lenin arrived too late to play a role;
    The Black Hundreds (the government’s official strikebreakers) crushed other riots in the Baltic and Georgia and murdered 500 Jews in Odessa.
    The workers lacked the will to resist further – the General Strikes called in St. Petersburg and Moscow had petered out as the workers felt compelled to go back to work to feed their families
    What was the significance of the 1905 Revolution?
    The Duma had been established whether it would fulfil its potential was another matter.
    St. Petersburg Soviet had been established – this was an impressive display of working class solidarity and could be useful in a later revolution
    The SR’s got a hold over the peasantry (maintained until after the Bolshevik takeover)
    The SD’s had been caught unawares and lost a lot of credibility (membership declines by 90% 1906 – 14)
    October Manifesto
    Faced with this opposition and a lack of control in town and countryside, the Tsar had a choice: to put down the uprisings and strike movement with bloodshed or to make concessions.
    He made concessions in the form of the October Manifesto which he issued on 30 October 1905. This promised
    A Duma or parliament that would be elected by the people and represent their views and interests
    Civil rights – freedom of speech and conscience (think what you please)
    The right to form political parties
    An end to press censorship
    After this, the middle classes, worried by the growing unrest and violence, swung back to the side of the Tsar. The October Manifesto had given them what they wanted and they now wanted to see the restoration of law and order.
    By this time the Tsar also had at his disposal the soldiers returning from the Russo-Japanese War which had ended in September. He made sure that they received all their back pay and improved their conditions of service so that they stayed loyal.
    Nicholas now felt he was in a position to reassert control. He used force to crush the St. Petersburg Soviet and the soviet movement in other cities; there was a particularly nasty struggle in Moscow where the soviet was suppressed violently. Then he turned his forces on the peasants and brought the countryside under control, although it took most of 1906 to do this.
    Long Term Discontent
    Alienated intelligentsia
    Middle- class liberals wanted to participate in government; wanted some form of elected national assembly
    Students protested against repressive government controls
    Revolutionaries
    Socialist Revolutionaries – wanted peasant revolution to create socialism based around peasant communes
    Social Democrats (Marxists) – wanted urban working classes to stage revolution to create a socialist state, then Communism
    National Minorities – eg. Finns, Poles, Jews
    Wanted more autonomy and independence
    Wanted an end to the policy of russification
    Peasants (aka. The Dark Masses)
    Grievances included: poverty, need for more land, high taxes, redemption payments on land
    Suffered periodic famines
    Increasing peasant population was putting more pressure on land
    Workers (aka. Proletariats)
    Grievances included: long hours, low pay, terrible working and living conditions
    Wanted more political pwer
    Government Policy
    Tsarist regime
    Weak, indecisive tsar
    Repressive government
    No moves towards constitutional government
    Denied basic freedoms eg. Free press, freedoms to form political parties
    No concessions to nationalities – any protests repressed
    Reactionary – against liberal reforms
    Witte’s economic policy
    Under Witte’s industrialization policy, urban workers and peasants were heavy pressed by high indirect taxes and low wages
    Economic slump after 1902 led to high unemployment and social tensions in towns
    Poor harvests in 1900 and 1902 led to starvation and violence in countryside
    Rapid and forceful industrialization – against privatization, against liberal ideas (aka. Slavophile), supported a command economy under the Tsar
    Outbreak of Russo-Japanese War, February 1904
    Defeats on land and at sea shocked Russian public
    January 1905 – lost Port Arthur
    War caused shortages of food and fuel, high prices and unemployment
    Huge upsurge of discontent as Tsar’s government perceived to be incompetent
    Bloody Sunday
    Sunday 22 January 1905 - Tsar’s troops fired on peaceful, working class demonstrators (wanted more pay, 8 hour work day, basic needs)
    Tsar ‘at war with his own people’ for most f 1905 – strikes, peasant uprisings, petitions, riots, demonstrators.
    Any time in modern European history, people forget about their internal differences and come together to fight a national enemy.
    Notes by Jorden Olton

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    2:00 am
  3. page Tsar Nicholas II edited Nicholas II (Reign- 1894-1917) ... by Brice Robinson and Robinson, Jorden Olton Olton, Ju…

    Nicholas II (Reign- 1894-1917)
    ...
    by Brice Robinson andRobinson, Jorden OltonOlton, Julian Madeyski
    Past Questions:
    “The outbreak of war in 1914 postponed the downfall of Nicholas II but also contributed to his overthrow in the first 1917 Russian revolution.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
    ...
    There were also problems in the countryside. Bad harvests in 1900 and 1902 pushed the peasants into starvation. They had already been squeezed by Witte’s policies and now they were at breaking point. From 1902 to 1904, peasant uprisings erupted sporadically and there was widespread violence in which the homes of landowners were looted and burnt.
    The government’s only response to this was to use force to suppress the disturbances.
    Overview of the Reign
    Industry and Witte
    Reluctanty, Nicholas allowed Sergei Witte to continue to expand Russia’s industry in the 1890s. This created much-needed economic growth but also led to serious social dislocation in the new overcrowded cities. This led to strikes, serious social dislocation in the new overcrowded cities. This led to strikes, demonstrations and political opposition, but Nicholas rejected the suggestion that the zemstva (local government councils) should participate in his government
    The Russo-Japanese War
    With tension rising, the Tsar embarked on what his foreign minister Pleheve described as a “Short victorious war to stern the revolutionary tide”.
    Nicholas declared war on Japan over control of parts of Korea in 1904. He hoped that this would unite the people behind the regime
    Unfortunately for Nicholas, the Russian navy was defeated at the Battle of Mukden in 1905. This futher damaged his reputation
    The 1905 Revolution
    In 1905 Nicholas ordered his troops to fire on a peaceful demonstration of St. Petersburg workers led by Father Gapon
    “Bloody Sunday” sparked off a spontaneous wave of revolution which swept across Russia and for a time it looked as though Nicholas would be toppled.
    Nicholas was saved by the continued support of the Army and his own reluctant agreement to introduce reforms
    In the October Manifesto, He promised Russia a Duma, an elected parliament which would have some say in the government of the country
    The Dumas
    However, as soon as things had calmed down Nicholas went back on his promises and introduced the “Fundamental Laws” giving him complete power.
    In 1906 when the first Duma, elected on a fairly wide franchise, began to demand immediate reforms to autocracy, Nicholas dissolved the parliament and demanded new elections. The franchise for each of the next three elections became narrower and soon only the wealthy and educated had the right to vote in elections. This gave Nicholas, by 1907, a Duma which would mostly do what he wanted it to do
    Agriculture and Stolypin
    Whereas problems in industry had been created by things moving too quickly, problems in agriculture were caused by things moving too slowly
    Although the peasants had been given the right to buy their own land in the 1860s, the mortgage loans they had taken out left them on the poverty line and unable to improve the land
    Various reforms were carried out by Peter Stolypin after 1906, but he was assassinated in 1911.
    Rasputin and Alexandra
    After the assassination of Stolypin, Nicholas became more reliant on the advice of his loving, but not wise, wife and her adviser Rasputin
    Rasputin was a peasant “Holy man” who used hypnotism on Tsarevich Alexis, the sick heir to the throne, whenever he fell ill with haemophilia. This brought down his blood pressure and gave his body the chance to heal
    Understandably, Alexandra adored Rasputin, but his sordid sex life and drunken antics brought the monarchy into terrible disrepute. Rumors abounded that the Tsarina had been bewitched by Rasputin and was even his lover.
    World War One
    In 1914, the outbreak of World War I briefly united the country behind the Tsar, but the war placed intolerable strain on the economy, transport and communications which left the cities starving and the army poorly supplied
    In 1915, the Tsar made the disastrous decision to take personal control of the army and headed off to the Front. From this point on, government was left in the hands of Alexandra and Rasputin, and the Tsar was personally associated with all of the massive defeats which the army suffered.
    In 1916, Rasputin was murdered by a group of noblemen in a desperate but unsuccessful attempt to restore the reputation of the monarchy
    The February Revolution
    A revolution fuelled by hunger and despair broke out in St. Petersburg in February 1917. This time the army did not support the Tsar, and neither did he show any willingness to compromise
    Nicholas was forced to abdicate the throne and a Provisional Government was set up to rule Russia until democratic elections could be held.
    In October 1917, the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks, who ordered the execution of Nicholas and his family during the civil war in 1918.

    Notes By: Jorden Olton
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    1:54 am

Tuesday, November 22

  1. page Parties edited ... Imposition upon the organs of local self-government of the duty of establishing employment age…
    ...
    Imposition upon the organs of local self-government of the duty of establishing employment agencies (labor exchanges) to deal with the hiring of local and non-local labor in all branches of industry, and participation of workers’ and employers’ representatives in their administration
    Bolshevik vs Menshevik
    - Lenin attacked Plekhanov through his pamphlets. In one in 9102 he berated Plekhanov for continuing to seek allies among as broad a group of anti-tsarist elements as possible. Lenin insisted that this would lead nowhere. Revolution in Russia was possible only if it was organized and led by a party of dedicated, professional revolutionaries.
    - There was a second congress of the RSDLP on July 30, 1903 in Brussels, Belgium. The purpose of the meeting was to unite the party, but instead it spit it into two. Plekhanov wanted to avoid confrontation but Lenin purposely made an issue of who had the right to belong to the SD party. Lenin’s aim was to force all members to choose between Plekhanov’s idea of a broad-based party, open to all revolutionaries, and his own concept of a small, tightly knit and exclusive party.
    - By 1912 the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks had become two distinct, conflicting Marxist parties. Cause of the split: The abrasive personality of Lenin …
    - A deep divide developed between Lenin and Julius Martov, who shared Plekhanov’s viewpoint about membership. Their quarrel was as much to do with personality as with politics. Martov believed that behind Lenin’s tactics was a fierce determination to become dictator of the party. The following was typical of their exchanges:
    ○ Martov: The more widely the title of ‘member of the party’ is spread, the better. We can only rejoice if every striker, every demonstrator, is able to declare himself a party member
    ○ Lenin: It is better that ten real workers should not call themselves party members than that one chatterbox should have the right and opportunity to be a member.
    Main differences between the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
    Bolshevik
    Menshevik
    Lead by Vladimir Lenin
    Lead by Julius Mortov
    Means majority-class (although not)
    Means minority-class, but there were more Mensheviks than Bolsheviks in the congress in Brussels
    Believed that violence was necessary for the revolution to succeed. They thought that only a violent uprising in the proletariat can truly create a communist state, the rebellion to be headed by a small number of intelligent revolutionaries.
    believe that reform and democracy will gradually bring Russia into communism. They thought that the formulation of a parliament and organization into different parties will allow Russia's working class to gain more power.
    Revolution: Bourgeois and proletarian stages could be telescoped into one revolution
    Revolution: Russia not yet ready for proletarian revolution – the bourgeois stage had to occur first
    The party: A tight-knit, exclusive, organization of professional revolutionaries.
    The party: A mass organization with membership open to all revolutionaries
    Decision-making: Authority to be exercised by the Central Committee of the party – this was described as ‘democratic centralism’
    Decision-making: Open, democratic discussion within the party – decisions arrived at by votes of members
    Strategy:
    - No co-operation with other parties
    - Economism dismissed as playing into hands of bourgeoisie
    - Aimed to turn workers into revolutionaries
    Strategy:
    - Alliance with all other revolutionary and bourgeoisie liberal parties
    - Support of trade unions in pursuing better wages and conditions for workers (economism)
    Believed that a revolutionary party should:
    - Be made up of a small number of highly disciplined professional revolutionaries
    - Operate under centralized leadership
    - Have a system if small cells (three people) to make it less easy for the police to infiltrate them
    - It was the job of the party to bring socialist consciousness to the workers and lead them through the revolution. Critics warned that centralized party like this would lead to dictatorship
    Believed that the party should:
    - Be broadly based and take in all those who wished to join
    - Be more democratic, allowing its member to have a say in policy –making
    - Encourage trade unions to help the working class improve their conditions
    - Took the Marxist line that there would be a long period of bourgeois democratic government during which the workers until they were ready to take over in a socialist revolution
    - Both parties supported by the working class.
    The Bolsheviks: attracted younger, more militant peasant workers who liked the discipline, firm leadership and simple slogans
    The Mensheviks: attracted different types of workers and members of the intelligentsia, also a broader range of people – more non – Russians, especially Jews, and Georgians.

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  2. page Parties edited ... The establishment in all branches of the economy of industrial tribunals made up equally of re…
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    The establishment in all branches of the economy of industrial tribunals made up equally of representatives of the workers and of management
    Imposition upon the organs of local self-government of the duty of establishing employment agencies (labor exchanges) to deal with the hiring of local and non-local labor in all branches of industry, and participation of workers’ and employers’ representatives in their administration
    Bolshevik vs Menshevik
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  3. page Parties edited Social Democrats (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) - Social Democrats. Short for All-Russian Social Dem…
    Social Democrats (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks)
    - Social Democrats. Short for All-Russian Social Democratic Workers Party) came into being in 1898. In 1898, Marxists formed the Russian Social democrats
    - Aim: to achieve revolution in Russia by following the ideas of Karl Marx. Marx claimed that the critical determinant of human behavior was class struggle, a process that operated throughout history. He referred to this process as the dialectic.
    - According to Marxism, the working class is the key point to the revolution.
    - Russian revolutionaries were attracted to Marx. It was Marx’s ideas that gave particular relevance of the ‘great spurt’ of the 1890s.
    Lenin’s impact on the SDs
    - When Lenin returned from exile to western Russia in 1900, he set about turning the SDs into his idea of what a truly revolutionary party must be.
    - Lenin criticized Plekhanov for being more interested in reform than revolution. He said that under Plekhanov the SDs, instead of transforming the workers into a revolutionary force for the overthrow of capitalism, were following a policy of ‘economism’ (putting the improvement of the workers’ conditions before the need for revolution). Lenin wanted living and working conditions to get worse, not better. In that way the bitterness of the workers would increase, and so drive the Russian proletariat to revolution
    - For Lenin, revolution was a matter of applied science. The teachings of Karl Marx had already provided the key to understanding how revolutions operated. It was the task of those select members of the SD party who understood scientific Marxism to lead the way in Russia. The workers could not be left to themselves; they did not know enough. They had to be directed. It was the historical role of the informed members of the SD party to provide that direction. Only they could rescue the Russian working class and convert it to true socialism.
    Issue 1: Fundamental Principle of the Parties:
    - By replacing private with public ownership of the means of production and exchange, by introducing planned organization in the public process of production so that the well being and the many sided development of all members of society may be ensured, the social revolution of the proletariat will abolish the division of society into class and thus emancipate all oppressed humanity, and will terminate all forms of exploitation of one part of society by another
    - A necessary condition for this social revolution is the dictatorship of the proletariat; that is, the conquering by the proletariat of such political power as would enable it to crush any resistance offered by the exploiters. In its effort to make the proletariat capable of fulfilling its great historical mission, international social democracy organizes it into an independent political party in o0pposition to all bourgeois parties… the Social Democratic Party will maintain a position of extreme revolutionary opposition to all the governments which may succeed one another during the course of the revolution
    Issue 2: Political Freedoms
    - The Russian Social Democratic Labor Party therefore sets as its immediate political task the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy and its replacement by a democratic republic whose constitution would guarantee.
    The sovereignty of the people, i.e., the concentration of the supreme power of the state in a unicameral legislative assembly composed of representatives of the people
    Universal, equal and direct suffrage for all citizens, male and female, who have reached the age of twenty; … a secret ballot in these elections…
    Broad local self-government; regional self-government for localities with special conditions of life or a particular make-up of the population
    Inviolability of person and dwelling
    Unrestricted freedom of conscience, speech, press and assembly; the right to strike and to form trade unions
    Freedom of movement and occupation
    Elimination of class privileges and the complete equality of all regardless of sex, religion, race or nationality
    Issue 4: The Rights of Workers
    - To protect the working class from physical and moral degradation, and also to develop its capacity for the liberation struggle; the party demands:
    Limitation of the working day to eight hours for all hired workers…
    A complete ban on overtime work
    A ban on night work… with the exception of those (industries) which absolutely require it for technical reasons…
    The prohibition of the employment of children of school age…
    A ban on the use of female labor in occupations which are harmful to the health of women; maternity leave from four weeks prior to childbirth until six weeks after birth…
    The provision of nurseries for infants and young children in all… enterprises employing women.
    State insurance for workers against old age and partial or complete disability through a special fund supported by a tax on capitalists…
    The appointment of an adequate number of factory inspectors in all branches of the economy…
    The supervision by organs of local self-government, together with elected workers’ representatives, of sanitary conditions in factory housing…
    The establishment of properly organized health inspection in all enterprises… free medical services for workers at the employer’s expense, with wages to be paid during time of illness
    Establishment of criminal responsibility of employers for violations of laws intended to protect workers
    The establishment in all branches of the economy of industrial tribunals made up equally of representatives of the workers and of management
    Imposition upon the organs of local self-government of the duty of establishing employment agencies (labor exchanges) to deal with the hiring of local and non-local labor in all branches of industry, and participation of workers’ and employers’ representatives in their administration

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    2:07 am

Sunday, November 13

  1. page Tsar Nicholas II edited ... Entrepreneur – THE PERSON WHO TAKES THE RISKS IN AN ECONOMY. Kulaks – the farmers in Russia,…
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    Entrepreneur – THE PERSON WHO TAKES THE RISKS IN AN ECONOMY.
    Kulaks – the farmers in Russia, who were commercial farmers vs. Subsidence Farmers (self-interest farmers)
    ___Background history to the downfall of the last tsar
    Modernization
    In the early 20th century, Russia was a very backward and agricultural country compared to heavily industrialized countries like the US, Germany and Britain.
    To be a great power in the 20th century Russia had had to industrialize. (had a lack of weapons, ships, and other military equipment required for modern warfare)
    Russia was poor. Agriculture was insufficient (used out of date tools and methods). Thus, partly as a result of this and partly because of the rising population, hundreds of thousands of peasants starved in years when the harvest was poor. With little to lose, there would often be peasant uprisings and revolts.
    Contradictions of modernization
    It would be difficult to maintain the institutions of tsarist autocracy in a modernized Russia. Most modern industrial countries had democracies and parliaments in which the middle class featured strongly and the power of the monarchs was limited.
    Industrialization created social te4nsions when millions moved from the countryside to the cities. A discontented working class living and working in poor conditions became volatile and led to instability. Packed together in the cities they would find it easier than the peasants to undertake concerted action.
    The need for a more educated workforce would make people more able to challenge the government
    The growth of the middle classes would create pressure for political change and for more accountable representative government
    Witte’s economic policy
    The problem for Russia was how to build up its industries and generate more wealth
    Witte’s plan was to make a huge investment in industry to create a spiral of upward industrial growth: the more industry grew, the more demand there would be for other industrial products.
    Whilst these would improve communications between cities, they would also create demand for iron, steel, coal and other industries associated with railway building.
    However, the government needed to invest in industry on a huge scale to really get it going. (which meant buying expensive machinery – capital equipment- from countries like Germany to equip factories until Russia could manufacture its own
    Foreign investment à he negotiated huge foreign loans, particularly from the French. The problem with foreign loans was that interest payments had to be made to regular intervals.
    The peasants à he increased both the state taxes they paid and the taxes they paid and the taxes on everyday items that they used, such as salt, kerosene and alcohol. He used the surplus grain from harvests to sell abroad, to pay off the interest on foreign loans and to buy more capital equipment.
    Witte’s policy was to squeeze resources out of the peasants to pay for industrialization. He also kept urban workers’ wages low so that all the money available went into industrial development. He hoped that industrial growth would lead to more wealth for everyone before the squeeze hurt too much.
    There was a great expansion in the late 1890s and early 1900s. But in 1902 there was an international slump and Russia couldn’t sell the products of its industry. The home market wasn’t strong enough because the peasants had been squeezed so hard they didn’t have money to spend on manufactured goods.
    Thousands of the new industrial workers lost their jobs. Strikes and protests broke out in most cities.
    There were also problems in the countryside. Bad harvests in 1900 and 1902 pushed the peasants into starvation. They had already been squeezed by Witte’s policies and now they were at breaking point. From 1902 to 1904, peasant uprisings erupted sporadically and there was widespread violence in which the homes of landowners were looted and burnt.
    The government’s only response to this was to use force to suppress the disturbances.
    Notes By: Jorden Olton

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    5:14 am

Thursday, November 10

  1. page home edited Hi guys! Here is the link to Active History. Remember, user name: americanschoolofwarsaw, password:…
    Hi guys! Here is the link to Active History. Remember, user name: americanschoolofwarsaw, password: aswasw
    activehistory.co.uk
    Russiapedia
    (view changes)
    4:05 am
  2. page Tsar Nicholas II edited ... II (Reign- 1894-1905) 1894-1917) notes by Brice Robinson and Jorden Olton Past Questio…

    ...
    II (Reign- 1894-1905)1894-1917)
    notes by Brice Robinson and Jorden Olton
    Past Questions:
    (view changes)
    3:06 am

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