Crimean War:

The war did not settle the relations of the powers in eastern Europe. It did awaken the new Russian emperor Alexander II (who succeed Nicholas I in March 1855) to the need to overcome Russia's backwardness in order to compete successfully with the other European powers.
The resulting Treaty of Paris, signed on March 30 1856, guaranteed the integrity of Ottoman Turkey and obliged Russia to surrender Southern Bessarbia, at the mouth of the Danuke. The Black Sea was neutralized, and the Danube Rivfer was opened to the shipping of all nations.


Russo - Japanese War:

The defeats on May 1905 (Russian navy attacked at Tsushima) led to criticism of the Russian government. The increase in revolutionary activity (Bloody Sunday and Potemkin Mutiny) convinced Nicholas II that he needed to bring an end to the conflict and accepted the offer of President Roosevelt to mediate between the two countries. So, under the terms of the Treaty of Portsmouth (August 1905) -
  • The Liaotung Peninsula and the South Manchurian Railway went to Japan
  • Russia recognized Korea as a Japanese sphere of influence
  • The island of Sakhalin was divided into two
  • The Norther Manchuria and the Chinese Eastern Railway remained under Russian control




By Jorden Olton