Tess Hiestand

Main Idea: Most of Europe, including Russia, was undergoing imperialism in the 19th century. This caused expansion and the westernization of non-westerners.

Vocabulary Terms:

Industrialization: process of changing from agrarian society to industrial society (manufacturing, goods and services)
-Agrarian society:
  • Economy: agriculture
  • Social: religious
  • Political: less individual more community- feudalism
Urbanization: growth in urban areas (movement to cities during industrialization)
Social mobility: classes become less stiff, ability to change classes (because urbanization= education)
Suffrage: right to vote, specifically women’s rights
Social Darwinism: application of evolution ideas applied to people (survival of the fittest applied to races, nations)
Secularism: separation of church and state, no divine right to rule, freedom of religion
Nationalism: the desire to become a nation-state, nationalist: extreme, sometimes superiority
- Can be argued that it caused both world wars
Nation-state: where the borders of the state do not exceed that of the nation
Imperialism: conquering of other nations where mother country creates trade markets
Liberalism: the rights of an individual are above the state; the individual is sovereign
  • Economic: capitalism, free market, entrepreneurship
  • Social: individual rights (ex. Private property, secularism)
  • Political: democratic principles (secularism
Karl Pearson: a historian, mathematics professor, and intellectual in the field of eugenics (the study of how favorable genes affect a population)

Published Documents of Public Policy and Propoganda in 19th century Europe

  • Analysis of Karl Pearson's "Scientific Study of National Life from the Standpoint of Science":
This source is valuable to a historian studying 19th century Europe because it gives insight into the fact that Social Darwinism (Darwin's theory of the survival of the fittest in reference to humans) shaped public policy and opinion in the sense that in was written to persuade and justify that imperialism was in fact the "right" future for Great Britain (and really all of imperial Europe).

  • Analysis of Rudyard Kipling's "the White Man's Burden:"
This source is valuable to a historian studying 19th century Europe because it gives insight into how European public policy, or imperialism, was justified. The document's purpose is to persuade, stressing Eurocentrism and claiming that expansionism was in fact a noble enterprise. The fact that it is a contemporaneous source adds to its value while the author's obvious non-objective view, due to being a European himself, presnts a limitation of the document.

Political Cartoons

external image 250px-1890sc_Pears_Soap_Ad.jpg

This is an example of propoganda in 19th century Europe that we looked at in class. Several messages could be intended by this image, major ones including the urging of "Westerners" to spread their culture around the world or the act of "cleansing" their worlds by elimination of inferior races (Social Darwinism).

external image 350px-White_mans_burden_the_journal_detroit.JPG

This is another example of a political cartoon that gives us insight into the public policy in 19th century Europe. Two specidic messages that could be intended by this image are the greatness of the U.S. and the West with the effort they are making to make the world a "better place." Another message could be similar to the meassage of the above cartoon, in which Europeans and other Westerners are encouraged to do their part in "cleansing of the world through westernizing other races and spreading their culture.